Chapman’s 2010 Theory of Alternating Crustal Displacement and the Torque Wrench Effect
As well as being an author (see shaunchapmanbooks.com and rockybooks.co.za), artist, environmentalist, game ranger, photographer, cyclist and more, Shaun Chapman is an avid researcher and thinker. In the course of his research for material for Rocky and the Origins of Man and other books, Shaun came across many mythological, scientific and scriptural works which have been woven into his books. This research also led Shaun to develop his ‘Chapman’s Theory of Alternating Crustal Displacement and the Torque Wrench Effect’.
Please note that it is Shaun’s theory and Shaun Chapman reserves the right to alter and modify, if and when, new scientific data necessitates. You are welcome to debate the issues – please use the Discussion Forum.
The Theory - A Summary
(I) The Earth’s crust lies on a layer of molten magma.
(II) Continental drift takes place as the various land masses drift across the surface of the Earth until they are evenly displaced and in a state of homeostasis with the combined quotients of centrifugal force, torsional force, gravitation and mass.
(III) The Earth’s orbital pattern varies from elliptical to circular. The circular orbit allows ice to build up at the poles as the orbital path takes the Earth further from the sun, thereby cooling the Earth.
(IV) H2O, or water, changes from a gaseous state, to a liquid state, and a solid state in the form of ice. During the ice ages water from the oceans, through various processes, is moved to the poles, deposited as snow and compacted into ice. This causes a considerable redistribution of mass on the planet’s surface.
(V) The overall mass of the Earth’s sub-layers and core are far greater than the mass of the crust.
(VI) At the end of each ice age huge amounts of mass in the form of ice build up at the poles, providing an uneven distribution of mass on the Earth’s surface distorting the equilibrium of the crust. This causes a slippage of the crust over the magma layer and asthenosphere, due to the torque wrench effect, as unequal amounts of force are applied to the poles and equatorial regions. The force and torque applied eventually reaches the maximum friction tolerance between the lithosphere and asthenosphere. An obliquity change will then occur. (Imagine a spinning top with small weights positioned and spaced at regular intervals over its surface. If the weights are repositioned at the poles or vice versa the top’s spinning orientation will change.)
(VII) At the end of an interglacial period, during the interstadial period, the reverse is true, i.e, the melting of ice from the polar ice caps causes the oceans to swell and rise around the equatorial regions due to centrifugal force. This accumulation of mass will eventually initiate an obliquity change.
(VIII) A period of homeostasis would happen when water, in its gaseous state, would be greater than its liquid state, or, the interchange of water from the oceans to ice at the poles is dramatically reduced due to an orbital pattern that is stable, or, the amount of shifted mass does not reach the critical point of initiating an obliquity change of the Earth’s crust, i.e, when a certain mass exchange has taken place and the torsional moments exerted are not enough to initiate crustal displacement. Crustal displacements can also occur during a glacial epoch when the build-up of mass in the form of ice disturbs the equilibrium or distribution of mass to such an extent a crustal displacement must occur. In effect causing a juddering effect until the glacial epoch reaches a point of maximum glaciation and a crustal displacement, ushering in an interstadial period, occurs.
(IX) Ice during the ice ages forces the lithosphere down into the magma layer causing a wobble effect in the Earth’s diurnal rotation.
(X) There is always a transference of mass due to the ongoing processes of melting and freezing of water and the shifting of water from poles to oceans. Due to, and, the resultant factor of continental rebound, the Earth is never in rotational sync. This also causes a rotational warping effect on the Earth’s rotation around the sun, which causes the advance and retreat of glacial areas; for example, the advance and retreat of the Wisconsin and Wurm glaciers of the last glacial epoch. This also has an effect on natural selective evolution.
(XI) Any changes of mass distribution that cause an obliquity adjustment, however small, will always be accompanied by volcanism, the sum total of redistribution of surface mass proportional to volcanic activity; this volcanic activity can also cause tiny obliquity changes. When torque is applied to the lithosphere by the resultant forces due to a redistribution of mass atop the Earth’s crust the tectonic plates will shift causing subduction and a widening of fault lines. This will be accompanied by earthquakes and tremors which will be proportional to the forces applied. The forces applied will rise exponentially until a crustal displacement occurs. Immediately after, or concurrent, with a crustal displacement, severe volcanism will occur, continuing for a prolonged period.
(XII) In the initial stages of the last obliquity event when there was a tremendous amount of mass accumulated at the poles, the lithosphere, because of the torsional forces applied to it, and, without the normal inherent inhibiting viscosity of the magma layer, and, after reaching near maximum friction tolerance, slipped, which caused the rotational period of the Earth to retard; however, because of the extra mass accumulation in the form of ice at the poles, and the torsional forces applied to it, caused a warping effect upon the Earth’s crust. As torque is applied in greater force, a gradual increase of transverse fault lines leading to the poles will occur because of the torque applied to the Earth’s crust. Preceding a crustal separation, the Earth’s core and other levels leading up to the asthenosphere, will continue their normal rotational cycle while the lithosphere’s will show a marked decrease in velocity leading up to the point of maximum frictional tolerance and a release of the lithosphere, i.e, the plastic layers between the asthenosphere and lithosphere will stretch like an elastic band until it reaches a snapping point. (According to recent research transverse faults related to mid oceanic ridges show a marked elongation towards the polar regions. The reason being, torsional forces applied to the extra accumulated mass around the equator causes torsional propagation.) In relation to glacial epochs, the greater the mass of ice, the greater the depression of subsurface layers, as the lithosphere will be forced down into magma layers. The amount of depression, and therefore warping, will be proportional to the amount of mass accumulation at the poles or equatorial regions. This shift in mass creates giant turning moments between poles and equatorial regions until they reach a point, which, combined with centrifugal force, the maximum friction tolerance level is reached, which enables the Earth’s crust to slide freely over the asthenosphere, until that is, stability is regained with crustal mass and water/ice mass distributed evenly over the planet’s surface. (For example: imagine a giant torque wrench turning and turning, applying more and more tension, until, the bolt snaps free, rotating freely. Simply put, the unequal mass distribution on the Earth’s surface creates turning moments, or torsion upon the Earth’s crust, because of the unequal amounts of mass being subjected to centrifugal force generated by the motion of the planet. These forces then cause shear stress and ultimately a shearing of the crust from the mantle.)
(XIII) Atmospheric and crustal weight applies pressure which resists any change.
(XIV) Polar ice regulates rainfall and climatic patterns, i.e, Little or no rainfall when at glacial maximum and polar extent; Large amounts of rainfall at the polar minimum at the end of an interglacial period.
(XV) Airborne carbon pollution through the use of fossil fuels causes glacial melting at a much increased rate, far more than would naturally occur, thereby creating greater torsion upon the Earth’s crust and propelling the Earth towards a crustal displacement.
(XVI) Hotspots: Areas under the Earth’s crust that are subjected to much greater temperatures, because of the convectional nature of the underlying outer plastic mantle and the fluid nature of magma, will, after a crustal displacement of the lithosphere, retain their inherent weakness due to the breakdown of continental or sea crust that has already taken place. This process happens over millions of years, so, eventually the crust solidifies and volcanoes become extinct and new areas of the crust are affected by the hotspots (which remain stationary), causing volcanism. It is also a possibility that a displacement event will move the crust near to the original position of the crust before preceding events. There are certain areas of the crust that will always exhibit volcanism, i.e, certain points between the tectonic plates called plate boundaries and areas of crust that have been weakened to such an extent that volcanism can continue for a very long period. The crustal displacement events occur around a median point, because of the inherent mass distribution of the lithosphere, and there are many other factors that pertain to migrating hotspots which move at various tempos, speeds and directions.
(XVII) Because the Earth’s crust, or lithosphere, is made up of tectonic plates, the shear moments applied to them can be soaked up by shifting movements and subduction of the plates, that is, if the torsion is applied over a long period of time, however, if the torsion force rises exponentially over a very short period of time, no soaking up of the forces can take place, the tectonic plates then seemingly act as though they are one solid surface, therefore leading to a crustal displacement event. (Acknowledgement is made to Dr Hapgood and his 1959 theory, titled – ‘The Orange Peel Effect’, and, Geologist Pedro Boshoff)
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